Bianca Kajimoto Magalhães*, Flávia Queiroz, Maria Lúcia Machado Salomão, Moacir Fernandes de Godoy

Magalhães et al. J Clin Transl Res 2022; 8(4):5

Published online: July 25, 2022

Abstract

Background: According to previous univariate analyses, chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with worse prognoses in severe cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in the presence of a complex system, such as a human organism, the use of multivariate analyses is more appropriate and there are still few studies with this approach.
Aim: Using a significant sample of patients hospitalized in a single center, this study aimed to evaluate whether the presence of CVD was an independent factor in death due to COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We also aimed to identify the clinical and laboratory predictors of death in an isolated group of cardiac patients.
Methods:
This case-control study was conducted with patients admitted to a tertiary hospital and affected by COVID-19 in 2020. Variables were collected from the Brazilian surveillance system of hospitalized cases (SIVEP-Gripe) and electronic medical records. Multivariate logistic regressions with backward elimination were performed to analyze whether CVD was an independent risk factor for death, and variables with p<0.05 remained in the final model.
Results:
A total of 2675 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60.4 years, and 55.33% of the patients were male. Odds ratios showed that age (OR 1.059), male sex (OR 1.471), Down syndrome (OR 54.980), diabetes (OR 1.626), asthma (OR 1.995), immunosuppression (OR 2.871), obesity (OR 1.432), chronic lung disease (OR 1.803), kidney disease (OR 1.789), and neurological diseases (OR 2.515) were independently associated with death. Neither the presence of heart disease nor the isolated analysis of each chronic CVD element (systemic arterial hypertension, congenital heart disease, previous acute myocardial infarction and cardiac surgery, obstructive coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and pacemaker use) showed as independent risk factors for death. However, an analysis restricted to 489 patients with chronic CVD showed troponin T (TnT) as an independent predictor of death (OR 4.073).
Conclusions:
Neither chronic CVD nor its subcomponents proved to be independent risk factors for death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A TnT level of 14 pg/mL was associated with a higher occurrence of death in the isolated group of patients with chronic heart disease.
Relevance for patients: Patients with chronic CVD may require more attention in the context of COVID-19 due to higher proportions of these individuals having a more severe progression of disease. However, regarding mortality in these patients, further studies should be conducted concerning comorbidities and acute myocardial injury.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18053/jctres.08.202204.005

Author affiliation

1. São José do Rio Preto Medical School, Brazil
2. São José do Rio Preto Foundation Medical School, Brazil

*Corresponding author
Bianca Kajimoto Magalhães
Brigadeiro Faria Lima Avenue, 5416 - Vila São Pedro, São José do Rio Preto - SP, 15090-000, Brazil
Phone: +55016991981541/+5501732015700
E-mail: biancakajimoto@gmail.com

Handling editor:
Michal Heger
Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China

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