Background: There is an increased prevalence of oral ailments such as dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis when orthodontic therapy is administered. Poor oral hygiene in conjunction with the placement of fixed orthodontic appliances is considered a significant factor in raising accumulation of bacterial plaque and its associated inflammatory response.
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare laser therapy with subgingival irrigation using ozonated water on gingivitis in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and to ascertain the presence of the inflammatory marker monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical study in which a split-mouth design was applied in 30 subjects for 28 days that received fixed orthodontic therapy. In each subject the upper right quadrant (control side) was irrigated with 0.01 mg/L ozonated water and the upper left quadrant (experimental side) was irradiated with a diode laser on day 0 (baseline) and day 7. The patients were recalled on days 7, 14 and 28 and clinical parameters were recorded at each visit. Biochemical evaluation of gingival inflammation with MCP-1 levels in GCF was obtained at the baseline (day 0) and on day 28.
Results: A statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction of all clinical parameters and MCP-1 activity in GCF was observed on both sides. Low-level laser irradiation showed a significant reduction of clinical parameters and MCP-1 activity compared to subgingival ozone irrigation.
Conclusions: Laser therapy can be considered a more effective method than subgingival ozone irrigation in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment as it showed a consistent improvement in gingival inflammation.
Relevance for patients: Fixed orthodontic appliances makes oral hygiene maintenance difficult and results in gingivitis. Adjunctive oral hygiene procedures like subgingival irrigation with ozonated water or laser irradiation is beneficial. The data from this study suggests that irrigation with ozonated water or laser irradiation reduces gingival inflammation, with laser therapy being more effective.
1. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, C.K.S. Teja Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Chadalawada Nagar, Renigunta Road, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India
2. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences, Kodagu, Coorg District, Virajpet, Karnataka, India
3. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Anil Neerukonda Institute of Dental Sciences, Sangivalasa, Bheemunipatnam, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
4. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, SJM Dental College and Hospital, P.B.Road, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India
S.V. Kala Vani
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, C.K.S. Teja Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Chadalawada Nagar, Renigunta Road, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517506, India
Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China