Background: The pathogenesis of complex diseases like periodontitis is moderated by the balance in immune-inflammatory responses. T lymphocytes are immune cells that descend from the bone marrow. Further they develop in the thymus having an indispensable part in adaptive immune responses. The periodontal microenvironment allows differentiation of various groups of T lymphocytes like CD4+ (Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg/Tfh/Th9/T22), CD8+ cells, γδ T cells or memory cells based on the current regional cytokine milieu to secrete distinct cytokines and other molecules required for resolution of inflammation or might result in progression of the disease based on interactions among various cells.
Aim: The dynamism of T lymphocytes in the immunopathogenesis of periodontal diseases resulting in tissue destruction is established but the mechanisms of immunoregulation that underpin periodontal disease progression are cumbersome. This review aims at understanding the distinct types of T cells, their effector functions with their portrayal in periodontal disease.
Relevance for patients: This review gives valuable insights on the possibility of predicting periodontal disease progression, management and its prognosis by evaluating specific cytokines of destructive T cell phenotype, future perspectives of therapeutic modalities including ways of modulating host immune and inflammatory responses to establish periodontal homeostasis and areas of research.
Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India
Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College, Ramapuram, Chennai-89, India Tel: +91-8778174406
Michal Heger Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China